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DR. IVES, Lately Bishop of said Diocese. 


OF 1853. 

Fayette ville: 




W$t Htfcrarp 


Unibersiit j>of i?orti) Carolina 

Qftjis; fooofe toasf pregenteb 





DR. I YES, Lately Bishop of said Diocese. 


OF 1853. 

Fayette ville: 



At a Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
Diocese of North Carolina, held in the city of Raleigh, May 27, 
1853, the following resolution was adopted^ 

"Resolved, That a committee of three Clergymen and two 
Laymen be appointed, with instructions to draw up a detailed 
statement of the difficulties between Dr. Ives, lately Bishop of 
this Diocese, and the said Diocese; and that they deliver the 
same to the Delegates from this Diocese to the next General 
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United 
■States, to be by them laid before the said General Convention; 
and also that a copy of the said statement be published with the 
•Journals of this Convention." 

In pursuance of the above resolution, the Committee have 
drawn up the following Statement, to be laid before the Gene- 
ral Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, to be held 
in the city of New York on the fifth day of October, in the year 
•of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three. 





At a Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina, held in 
the town of Salisbury, Rowan county, beginning on May the 
24th, 1849, the committee on the State of the Church deplored 
the "existence of great agitation and alarm, arising from the 
impression that doctrines had been preached, not in accordance 
with the Liturgy and Articles of the Church, and that ceremo- 
nies and practices had been introduced, either unauthorised by 
the customs of the Church, or in plain violation of its Kubricks." 

The particular causes of the agitation and alarm spoken of by 
the committee in these general terms were as follows: — 

It was supposed that Bishop Ives himself had, in a "Pastoral 
on the Priestly Office," published previous to the Convention of 
1849; — in a pamphlet entitled "The Voice of the Anglican 
Church," and advertised as edited by the Bishop of North Ca- 
rolina; — and in seven sermons preached in various parts of the 
Diocese, and published after the Convention of 1S49 under the 
title of "The Obedience of Faith," inculcated the doctrine of 
private confession and absolution as taught by the Church of 
Rome; that he had induced some of his Clergy to teach the 
same doctrine; that he had, in conversation at least if not in 
public preaching, declared his belief in the Romish doctrine of 
Transubstantiation; that he had pronounced our Church in a 
state of schism; and that his influence was producing injurious 
effects on the Church by the spreading of these errors both a- 
mong the Clergy and the Laity. That there had been instituted 
by him a secret society termed "The Society of the Holy Cross," 
whose object and rules, though then unknown, were feared to 
be inimical to the laws and spirit of the Church. That at Yal- 
le Crucis, a missionary station in the western part of the State, 
there existed a practice of frequently reserving the consecrated 
bread in a pix on the communion table, for the purpose of pri- 
vately receiving the same; that prayers to saints and angels, 
and prayers for the dead, had been taught the pupils at this in- 


stitution; and that these things had been practised without the 
disapprobation, if not with the sanction, of the Bishop. That 
in other parts of the Diocese, ceremonies were beginning to be 
introduced which, though in some cases they might be of little 
moment in themselves, were looked on as designed at that time, 
and under existing circumstances, to be introductory of practi- 
ces and teachings of Romish tendency, and that these things 
had been don<c with the knowledge, if not with the consent, of 
the Bishop. 

How far these apprehensions were well founded, will be seen, 
partly from the publications mentioned above, and partly from 
documents to be presently introduced into this statement. 

The committee on the State of the Church in 1849, further 
observed, "that as it was not their business to say, they did not 
say, whether or not such doctrines had been preached or such 
practices introduced, but they stated it as their full conviction, 
that the far greater part of the clergy were entirely opposed to 
any such departure from the doctrines of the Church; that they 
desired no ceremonies unauthorised by the customs of the 
Church, and were still less tolerant of such as violated the Ru- 
bricks." With respect to the Society of the Holy Cross, the 
committee added, ''that they had assurance on which they en- 
tirely relied, that no such society was at that time in existence 
in the Diocese." 

The Bishop, responding to this report, sent by one of his Cler- 
gy, as he was confined to his room by sickness, the following 
Charge to the Clergy: — 

"Brethren of the Clergy: — In the Report on the State of 
the Church, made by members of your Order, reference is made 
to excitement in the Diocese, growing out of the idea that doc- 
trinces are promulged, and practices encouraged among us, 
more or less repugnant to the authorised doctrines and usages 
of our branch of the Church. As these doctrines and practices 
are not specified, your Bishop can address you only in general 
fcerms. But he does, by way of charge, hereby address you, and 
authorise you, when you return to your several parishes, to as- 
sure your people, that no efforts shall be wanting on his part, 
so long as God shall give him jurisdiction in North Carolina, to 
hinder the inculcation of any doctrine or the introduction of any 

practice — come from whatever quarter it may — not in strict ac- 
cordance with the Liturgy of our Church, as illustrated and de- 
fined by those standards of interpretation authorised by the 
Church itself. 

In respect to a particular question, which has agitated the 
Diocese of late, — the question of auricular confession,. — I may 
here express my conviction, that the Book of Common Prayer, 
our standard of doctrine, discipline, and worship, does not au- 
thorise any Clergyman of this Church to enforce such confession 
as necessary to salvation, and that the only confession which it 
authorises, is the voluntary confession of the penitent in accord- 
ance with the exhortation in the Office for the Holy Communion, 
(Signed,) «.L. S. IYES, Bishop of N". C." 

Of this Charge of the Bishop,, the Convention, expressed 
their approbation by the following preamble and resolution: — 

"Whereas, in the Report of the committee on the State of the 
Church, mention is made of certain rumors of doctrines and 
practices not in accordance with the principles- of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church: and whereas, while in the opinion of this 
Convention,. the Church encourages her members to seek, when- 
ever necessary,, the godly counsel and advice of her pastors, yet 
she no where requires the practice of auricular confession and 
private absolution: And whereas, im the language of the late' 
Bishop Hobart, the Church of Home makes auricular confession- 
to the Priest, by every individual, of all his sins- of thought,, 
word and deed,, an indispensable condition of forgiveness — the 1 
Churchman justly deems auricular confession and private abso* 
lution, an encroachment on the rights of conscience — an inva- 
sion of the prerogative of the Searcher of hearts — and with some 
exceptions, hostile to domestic and social happiness,, and licen- 
tious and corrupting in its tendency. And, whereas, a commu- 
nication from the Eight Rev. Bishop of this Diocese has been 
made to the Clergy during, this Convention, expressing his 
views, which this Convention have heard with great satisfaction, 
and to which they desire to give extended circulation. Therefore., 

Resolved, That 1,000 copies of the Report of the Committee 
on the State of the Church, together with the charge of the 
Bishop, and this preamble,, be published in pamphlet form and. 
distributed by the secretary to the different parishes,. 

In returning from the Salisbury Convention, several of the 
clergy were made acquainted with a manual of devotion given 
to the pupils at Valle Crucis, in which were introduced — 1. 
The 'Hail Mary', the salutation to the blessed Virgin, so com- 
mon in books of Romish devotion. 2. The following prayer to 
the guardian angel: "Oh! blessed angel, to whose care I am 
committed by God's mercy; — enlighten, defend, and govern me 
through all my life, and to the hour of my death. Amen." 3. 
The following prayer for the dead: "Bless the dead in Christ,. 
grant them a remission of sins, and a peaceful rest in Thee." 

The knowledge of the existence of such a manual occasioned 
great displeasure and apprehension among the clergy who were 
made acquainted with its contents; and produced from at least 
two of them a correspondence with the Bishop, in which, they 
strongly remonstrated with him for having permitted, if not 
sanctioned, the use of such devotions in an institute for youth 
that was immediately and especially under his control. The 
correspondence of one of these clergymen with the Bishop on 
this subject accompanies this Statement. [See Appendix.]' 

From this correspondence may be seen the views entertained 
by the Bishop on the one hand, and by the generality of the 
clergy on the other. 

The Bishop soon made it appear that he was not satisfied with, 
the result of the Salisbury Convention, for in October of the 
same year he set forth a pastoral letter to the clergy and laity 
of the diocese containing severe reprehensions of the proceed- 
ings of the Convention, and especially of the Committee on the 
State of the Church. In this pastoral he expressly denied hav- 
ing made any retractation, and apparently reaffirmed views and 
teachings which had been attributed to him. 

The publication of this pastoral excited very great and very 
general surprise and dissatisfaction, and received various an- 
swers both from within and without the diocese. 

In consequence of this state of the public mind, the Bishop., 
on the advice of some of his clergy, requested a convocation of 
the clergy on the night preceding the Convention to be held in 
the town of Elizabeth City in May 1850. 

At this meeting of the Clergy, the Bishop read to them a pa- 
per explanatory, as he said, of his views.. 


This paper, the greater part, at least, of the Clergy present, 
believed would not be satisfactory to the community. They 
thought it too obscure, too long, and too much taken up with 
quotations from others. A committee was appointed to wait on 
the Bishop, and express to him these views; the committee in 
addition requested that he would be as explicit as possible, as 
concise as possible, in the setting forth of his opinions; and that 
he would especially declare what he did not hold in regard to 
those points on which the soundness of his views had been crues- 
tioned. The Bishop then submitted to the committee the fol- 
lowing remarks, with which he afterwards concluded his An- 
nual Address to the Convention: — 

"For myself as an individual, I have nothing to urge — no- 
thing to say. But as your Bishop, responsible in some sort at 
least for the truth, I feel bound to remove in plain terms of de- 
nial, some misconceptions which are operating to hinder the 
due effects of that trulh as set forth in my writings, and to keep 
up agitation and distrust in the Diocese. 

"I neither teach nor hold, as some have thought, private con- 
fession and absolution, in the Romish sense. The Homish church 
holds them to be a necessary sacrament in themselves, as in 
Baptism and the Lord's Supper. I hold and teach, that our 
branch of the Church denies this. That Church makes them 
obligatory on all her members. I teach and hold, that our 
Church does not, but makes them an exception to a general rule, 
which general rule is public confession and absolution, accord- 
ing to the forms of our Liturgy. That church obliges the priest 
to see that every communicant comes to them. I teach and 
hold, that our church leaves it with the penitent to determine 
whether and how far he needs them, and does not permit the 
priest to do more in bringing the penitent to them, than point 
out the dangers of self-trust and self-delusion, and the benefits 
of unburdening the conscience, and of receiving the godly coun- 
sel and advice of God's Ministers, according to the direction of 
the exhortation to the Holy Communion in our Liturgy. That 
church holds to the necessity of confessing each mortal sin of 
thought, word, and deed, to the priest. I teach and hold, that 
our church regards it needful that each communicant should so 
search and examine his conscience, according to the rule of 


God's commandments, as to be able to confess all heinous i 
fences in will, word, or deed, to Almighty God; and that if '. 
cannot by this means "quiet his conscience," and come to t 
Holy Communion "with a full trust in God's mercy," he shi 
open his grief to some minister of God's "Word, that he may c 
tain his counsel and aid to "the removing of all scruple ai 

"In regard to Christ's Real Presence in the Holy Eucharii 
I neither teach nor hold it, as in the sense of Transubstantiatic 
neither do I teach or hold, as I do not understand, how Chr 
is there present, further than that He is not there in a materi 
but spiritual manner — "but because spiritual not the less rea 

"I do not hold nor teach, that "the creatures of bread a: 
wine," in the Holy Eucharist, are to be, in the meaning of t 
28th Article, "reserved, carried about, lilted up, or worshipped 

"I do not teach nor hold, that our church allows any addn 
ees, by way of prayer and invocation, to the Blessed Virgin, 
to any Saint or Angel; while I regard the Romish doctrine 
invocation' of Saints, implying meritorious mediation and cr 
demned by Article 22d, as clearly derogatory to Christ, a: 
derogatory to God's Word. 

"Finally, I do not teach nor hold, that our branch of the ( 
tholic Church is, from any cause, either in heresy or schism, 
that she is destitute of the true Sacramental system." 

The committee on the State of the Church express, in tin 
Report, the great satisfaction they received from the explai 
tions of the Bishop. 

Still, a great portion at least of the Convention were persm 
ed, that the difficulties which had existed in the Diocese requ 
ed a thorough investigation, and many of the members had ( 
termined to call for a committee for this purpose. The Bish 
being informed that this would certainly be done, anticipat 
such action by the following communication:- — • 

"Brethren of the Convention: Aware that the difficult 
in the Diocese, to which I have alluded in my Address, si 
threaten the peace of the same, and being anxious to do all 
my power to restore harmony and good will, I hereby ask 
you a committee of clergymen and laymen, to investigate 
the circumstances connected therewith, and report to a futi 
meeting of this body." 


This committee of Investigation, consisting of three clergy- 
men and three laymen, was appointed by ballot. 

At the Convention of 1851, held in Fayetteville, this commit- 
tee presented, in their Report, the result of their investigations, 
containing evidence of very erroneous teaching by the Bishop, 
both in public and private, in the following particulars: — - 

"1st. It was alleged that the Bishop stated, that he believed 
the church to be in schism; and that he would not be Bishop 
of Maryland for his right arm." 

"2d. It was alleged that he declared his purpose to appoint a 
penitentiary priest to visit the different parishes of his Diocese." 

"3d. It was alleged that he declared he objects to the pray- 
ers to the Yirgin Mary or the Saints, not because they are wrong 
in themselves, but because they are liable to abuse." 

"4th. It was alleged that the difficulties in the Diocese have 
been caused by the teaching of the Bishop on the subject of 
Auricular Confession and Absolution." 

"5th. It was alleged that these difficulties have been caused 
by the teachings of the Bishop on the subject of the Real Pres- 
ence in the Eucharist; which words were supposed to be used 
by him in the Romish sense." 

"6th. It was alleged that the Bishop's supposed connection 
with the publication of the pamphlet known as "The Voice of 
the Anglican Church," had been one of the causes of the diffi- 
culties in the Diocese. 

"7th. It was alleged that the Bishoj) did establish within this 
Diocese, the Order of the Holy Cross, and that he did introduce 
novel and unauthorised customs and practices within the same." 

After the introduction of the Report of the Investigating com- 
mittee, a committee of six clergymen and six laymen were ap- 
pointed to confer with the Bishoj) on the subjects contained in 
that Report. This committee, after conference with the Bishop, 
reported as follows: — - 

"That the Bishop said to the committee, it might be consid- 
ered humiliating in him to offer to the committee the statement 
he was now about to make; but a sense of duty, both to himself 
and to the Church, compelled him to do so. That it had been 
at one time a very favorite idea with him, to bring about a u- 
nion of the Roman, the Greek, the Anglican, and the American 


churches; and that in his zeal for catholic union, he had over- 
looked the difficulties in the way, which lie was now satisfied 
were insuperable. That this tendency of his mind towards a 
union of the churches had been greatly increased, and his abil- 
ity to perceive the difficulties in the way had been diminished, 
by a high state of nervous excitement, arising either from bodily 
disease or from a constitutional infirmity. That in the pursuit 
of this favorite idea, he had been insensibly led into the adop- 
tion of opinions on matters of doctrine, and to a public teaching 
of them, of the impropriety of which he was now fully satisfied; 
and "upon a review of those opinions, wonders that he should 
ever have entertained them. That this change in his views has 
been brought about in part by a return to a more healthy con- 
dition of mind and body, but mainly from having perceived the 
tendency of those doctrines to the Church of Rome, as sad ex- 
perience has shown in the cases of Arch-deacon Manning and 
others. That among the effects of his desire to bring about this 
union of the churches, he was induced to tolerate the Romish 
notion of the 'Invocation of Saints,' as expressed in his letter to 
the Rev. C. F. McRae, which expression he now retracts and 
would denounce as strongly as any one. That on the subject of 
Auricular Confession and Absolution, whatever extravagancies 
of opinion or expression he may have heretofore indulged, he 
now holds that confession to a Priest is not necessary to salva- 
tion; and that he does not believe in judicial absolution, or the 
power of .the priest to forgive sins. Nor does he hold that the 
absolution recognised by the Protestant Episcopal Church is 
merely declaratory, but that the priest is therein an instrument 
through whom pardon is transmitted to the penitent, while its 
efficacy does not in any degree depend upon the volition or in- 
tention of the priest. That absolution is not essentially neces- 
sary to the forgiveness of sins, but that it is important when 
practicable to obtain absolution as contained in the ritual of our 
church, which is the only absolution that he holds proper, ex- 
cept in those cases in which that is impracticable. That he had 
at one time, under the influences before mentioned, entertained 
doubts whether our branch of the church was not in a state of 
schism. That he had never gone so far as to believe that it was, 
but merely entertained doubts. He was now satisfied beyond 


a doubt that she was not in schism. That he had never held 
the doctrine of the real presence in the Holy Communion as sy- 
nonymous with Transubstantiation, but on the contrary had al- 
ways abhorred it. He admitted that on a review of some of his 
writings, he had become satisfied that he had exposed himself 
to misconstruction by the use of the term Real Presence, which 
was in the Romish sense synonymous with Transubstantiation. 
But in the use of the term Real Presence, he had in his mind 
only the spiritual presence of Christ. That the term spiritual 
presence was the only one proper to be used, as the general ex- 
pression real presence was, in the present state of the Christian 
world, liable to be understood as asserting Christ's bodily pre- 
sence in the Eucharist — being used by the Romish Church to 
express its idea of Transubstantiation. And that the spiritual 
presence of Christ in the Eucharist is all that our Church teaches, 
and would recommend the use of that expression instead of real 

"With regard to the publication of the Tract called 'The voice 
of the Anglican Church," the Bishop says that he had nothing 
to do with its compilation; but learning while in New York that 
such a compilation had been made by two clergymen in whom 
he had entire confidence, he determined, without verifying the 
quotations, to have it published as an appendix to his volume 
of Sermons. But that when he had ascertained its true charac- 
ter, he immediately countermanded its publication, and now 
regrets ever having had any thing to do with it. 

"With regard to the Order of the Holy Cross, the Bishop 
states— That no such Order is now in existence, nor has been 
since the Salisbury Convention. That from his experience of 
the results upon the minds of the .young men, he is satisfied that 
no vows beside those expressly required or allowed by our Rit- 
ual, ought to be taken in our church; and furthermore, that any 
vows beyond those, are contrary to the spirit of our euurch, and 
are a temptation and a snare to those who take them. And 
that Yalle Crucis is now only a missionary station." 

Although this recantation did not give entire satisfaction, it 
was nevertheless deemed unadvisable to proceed further in the 
matter; and this feeling of forbearance on the part of the Dio- 
cese was confirmed by the Bishop's Address at the close of the 


Convention, in which he thanked the Convention for having 
given him a check, and assured them that the church might re- 
ly on his increased devotion to her service. 

From this time till the Convention of 1852, nothing occurred 
to disturb the tranquility which the Diocese at length now en- 

At the Convention of 1852, held in Fayetteville, the Bishop 
introduced into his Annual Address the following remarks: — 

"Brethren of the Clergy and Laity: Let us unite in thanks- 
giving to God, that we are allowed to assemble once more, in 
the peace and unity of the Gospel. The affairs, both of the Di- 
ocese and of the Protestant Episcopal Church throughout the 
world, have, during the past year, assumed a more encouraging 
aspect. In our own Diocese, God seems by his providence and 
grace to have appeared in our behalf. His solemn interposition 
at our last Convention, through the death of a much loved bro- 
ther, as connected with the adjustment of our trying difficulties, 
has been followed by a less signal, perhaps, but no less certain 
manifestation of his grace, in the increasing harmony and pros- 
perity of our parishes, during the whole period since we last 
met. Your Bishop desires to record his grateful thanks to Al- 
mighty God, for more than usual tokens of Divine blessing up- 
on his labors during his late visitation. The thoughts of men, 
which for a time seemed, by our commotion, diverted from 
themselves, have manifestly, as seen in numerous instances, 
been called back by the more urgent claims of personal religion; 
so that now the anxiety seems to be rapidly gaining ground, 
'what must I do to be saved?' 'Lord, what wilt thou have me to 
do?' The only serious drawback, in my view, to this encourag- 
ing state of things, is the diminished number of ministers, or- 
dained of God, to answer such questions, and guide inquiring 
sinners in the way of life. 

In our branch of the Church Catholic, too, there are pleasing 
indications of increased stability in the faith, and increased zeal 
for the salvation of men. But what, in the view of your Bishop, 
is, at present, demanded to give depth and substantial reality 
to this advancement, is a thorough knowledge of, and simple 
adherence to, the teaching of the Booh of Common Prayer. It 
hardly need be observed that this, to us, as Christians as well 


as Churchmen, is the teaching of Holy Scripture; and that we 
are bound as honest men to shape our faith and practice to its 
plain and natural meaning; — to allow no fancy or prejudice of 
our own minds either to warp that meaning or be the ground 
of departure from it. Every priest, it is true, is expected to 
form his judgment of the sense, and to exercise a sound discre- 
tion in the use, under extraordinary circumstances, of the Pray- 
er Book. But this is clearly distinct from the idea that we are 
at liberty to sacrifice its natural obvious meaning, to our preju- 
dices, or to force from it a meaning to suit our private theolo- 
gical views. The fact is, the system of the Liturgy, and not our 
own minds, is to be our guide. Our first aim, then, should be 
to keep our minds in a state of simple submission to its actual 

The tranquility of the diocese still continued uninterrupted. 

On the 27th of September, 1852, the Standing Committee re- 
ceived from the Bishop the following letter: 

Kaleigh, Sept. 27, 1852. 

"Deak Brethren: Feeling it to be my duty, from the state 
of the health of Mrs. Ives and myself, to request an absence of 
six months from the diocese, and an allowance of $1,000 in ad- 
vance on my salary to enable us to travel, I addressed a letter 
to the several parishes, making this request, and now submit 
the result to yourselves as my canonical advisers — which result 
is much less full at this date, than it will doubtless be on the 
fifth of next month — that being the time on which I requested 
an answer to my communication. Circumstances, however, 
having arisen to hasten my departure, I take this early oppor- 
tunity to ask your official concurrence with the sentiments of 
the Yestries thus far expressed, and, 1st, consent to my absence 
for six months from the first of November; and, 2d, consent to 
my drawing on the Treasurer of the Diocese for one thousand 
dollars in advance of my salary. 

"With sentiments of the most affectionate regard, I remain, 
brethren, your faithful friend and servant in the Lord, 

(Signed,) "L. SILLIMAN IVES." 

It is plain that in this letter to the Standing Committee there 
is no intimation of any change of views entertained by the Bish- 
op, of any reverting to his former doubts and difficulties, any 


inclination towards the church of Rome, much less any express- 
ed intention of joining her communion; nor is there evidence of 
any such intimation by any public act or declaration. Soon 
after the departure of the Bishop for Europe, rumors began to 
prevail through the Diocese, that he was proceeding to Rome 
for the purpose of conforming to the church of Rome, and it 
was even asserted that he had taken such a step before his de- 

On the 28th of February of the present year, a communica- 
tion was received by the Standing Committee, and on the 3d of 
March ensuing a duplicate of the same, addressed to the Con- 
vention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of 
North Carolina, and containing the declaration of Bishop Ives's 
renunciation of his Diocese, and of his apostacy to the Church 
of Borne. 

The communication of the 28th of February is herewith sub- 
mitted: — 

"Rome, Dec. 22d, 1852. 
"For the Convention of ilie 

" Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of K. Carolina: 
"Dear Brethren: Some of you, at least, are aware that for 
years, doubts of the validity of my office as Bishop, have at 
times harrassed my mind and greatly enfeebled my action. At 
other times, it is true, circumstances have arisen to overrule 
these doubts and to bring to my mind temporary relief. But 
it has been only temporary; for, in spite of my resolutions to 
abandon the reading and the use of Catholic Books — in spite of 
earnest prayers and entreaties that God would protect my mind 
against the disturbing influence of Catholic truth — and in spite 
of public and private professions and declarations, which in 
times of suspended doubt, I sincerely made, to shield myself 
from suspicion and win back the confidence of my Diocese, 
which had been well nigh lost, — in spite of all this and of many 
other considerations, which would rise up before me as the 
necessary consequence of suffering my mind to be carried for- 
ward in the direction in which my doubts pointed, these doubts 
would again return with increased and almost overwhelming 
vigor — goading me at times to the very borders of derangement. 
Under these doubts I desired temporary repose from duties that 


had become disquieting to me, and determined to accompany 
Mrs. Ives, whose health demanded a change of climate, in a 
short absence abroad. But absence has brought no relief to my 
mind. Indeed the doubts that disturbed it have grown into 
clear and settled convictions — so clear and settled, that without 
a violation of conscience and honor and every obligation of duty 
to God and His Church, I can no longer remain in my position. 
I am called upon therefore to do an act of self-sacrifice, in view 
of which all other self-sacrificing acts of my life are less than no- 
thing — called upon to sever the ties, which have been strengthen- 
ed by long years of love and forbearance — which have bound 
my heart to many of you as was David's to that of Jonathan — 
and make that heart bleed as my hand traces the sentence 
which separates all Pastoral relation between us — and conveys 
to you the knowledge that I hereby resign into your hands my 
office as Bishop of North Carolina, — -and further, that I am de- 
termined to make my submission to the Catholic Church. 

"In addition, (my feelings will allow me only to say,) that as 
this act is earlier than any perception of my own, and antedates 
by some months, the expiration of the time for which I asked 
leave of absence, and for which I so promptly received from 
members of your body an advance of salary, I hereby renounce 
all claim upon the same, and acknowledge myself bound, on an 
intimation of your wish, to return whatever you may have ad- 
vanced to me beyond this 22d day of December. 

"With continued affection and esteem, I pray you to allow 
me still to subscribe myself, your faithful friend, 


At the Convention of 1853, held in the city of Raleigh, be- 
ginning May 26, this communication being laid before that 
body, the following preamble and resolutions were adopted: 

"Levi Silliman Ives, D. D., L. L. D., lately the Bishop of 
this Diocese, having in the month of October last left the Uni- 
ted States for Eurcvpe, upon leave of absence asked and obtain- 
ed by him for the purpose of recruiting his health, and that of 
Mrs. Ives, alleged by him to have become impaired: and hav- 
ing, by a communication written from Rome, under date of the 
22d of Dec'r last, (mentioned in the report of the Standing 
Committee,) and addressed to this Convention, in the form of 


a resignation of his Episcopal place and jurisdiction, made 
known the fact that he had renounced the Communion of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and had determined to make his 
submission to the Church of Rome: and it thus appearing that 
he has relinquished and abandoned his Episcopal charge, and 
by his apostacy to the Roman Church, has disabled himself 
from ever exercising any Episcopal jurisdiction within this 
Diocese: this Convention, in the name and in behalf of all the 
Clergy and Laity of the Diocese, doth declare the Episcopate 
thereof to be vacant. And therefore, 

"Resolved, That the Convention will proceed to elect some 
suitable person as Bishop of this Diocese, to fill the said va- 

"Resolved, That a Committee, consisting of three Clergy- 
men and two Laymen, be appointed, with instructions to draw 
up a detailed statement of the difficulties between Dr. Ives, 
lately the Bishop of this Diocese, and the said Diocese; and 
that they deliver the same to the Delegates from this Diocese 
to the next General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States, to be by them laid before the said 
General Convention; and also that a copy of the said statement 
be published with the Journals of this Convention." 

In pursuance of the first of these resolutions, the Rev. Thos. 
Atkinson, D. D., Rector of Grace Church, Baltimore, was, on 
Saturday the 28th of May, 1853, duly elected Bishop of the 
Diocese of North Carolina. 

From the above statement, the Committee think it will plain- 
ly appear that these two objects have been kept constantly in 
view by the Diocese of North Carolina: — First. The preserva- 
tion in full purity of the doctrines and practices of the Church; 
and, Secondly. The exercise of as great kindness and forbear- 
ance towards the late Bishop as was consistent with the first of 
these objects. 

R. S. MASON, Chairman. 


Correspondence of the Rev. C. F. McRae with Bishop Ives. 

Waerenton, Jul} 7 10, 1819. 

My Dear Bishop: It distresses me to bring to your notice 
anything of a painful character; and yet, in this instance, my 
conscience obliges me to do so. I have constantly sympathized 
with you in your efforts for the establishment at Yalle Crucis, 
and have cheerfully contributed according to my means to re- 
lieve you of the pecuniary obligations assumed for it. I have 
done more. I have so represented the character of the school 
at Yalle Crucis, and the mission there, as to prevail on others 
to contribute also. I feel, therefore, more than a common in- 
terest in the character and teaching of the establishment. It 
was with unfeigned pleasure I heard you state in your address 
to the late Convention that "no doctrine will be taught or prac- 
tice allowed" there which is not in accordance with the princi- 
ples and usages of our branch of the Holy Catholic Church, 
contained in the Book of Common Prayer. Judge, then, my 
surprise, when, as I returned from the Convention, there was 
put into my hand a form of daily devotion for the use of a 
young man who had been at Yalle Crucis, drawn irp in the 
hand-writing of Mr. French, containing a prayer to the Yirgin 
Mary, an invocation of Saints, and a prayer for the dead. This 
was exhibited not to me only, but to Dr. Mason, Dr. Drane, 
Mr. Smecles, Mr. Forbes, and Mr. Parham; — and there was but 
one sentiment in regard to it. 

Now, my dear Bishop, this is not in accordance with the de- 
claration of your address. And it is but right you should know 
that doctrines and practices not recognized by our Church, and 
not contained in the Book of Common Prayer, are taught at 
Yalle Crucis. They must be taught without your knowledge, 
and of course without your sanction. Pray exert your authori- 
ty to suppress such teaching. 

I hope you will not regard this entreaty as unbecoming or 
unwarrantable. As I have already stated, I feel conscientious- 


ly bound to protest against any contributions I have made or 
have influenced others to make being perverted to such an end. 
And I trust you will give me the assurance that no such doc- 
trines or practices as I have named shall be taught there. 

Not knowing your address, I send this to Raleigh, that it 
may receive the proper direction. 

I remain, my dear Bishop, yours, truly and affectionately, 
(Signed,) CAMERON F. McRAE. 

Reply of Bishop Ives. 

Valle Ckucis, July 27, 1849. 

My Dear McRae: Your last letter gave me sincere pleasure, 
for it was written in the true way of your duty. Had all your 
acts, and the acts of other presbyters been done on the same 
principle, there would have been no difficulty in Convention. 
But let that pass. It will yet be the occasion of good to the 
truth. God takes his own way: we have only to submit. 

In regard to the little manual, I can only say, that as in all 
other things done lately, you have gone off half-cocked — parti- 
cularly Forbes — as I have heard of all this matter weeks ago. 
But to the facts. Two years ago, the Rev. Mr. French, than 
whom the church has not a truer son, prepared this little man- 
ual from Bishop Cosin, Andrews, and a Romish book of devo- 
tion, putting in only those things which he conscientiously 
thought, I think erroneously, that he had a right to put in, in- 
tending, however, before giving it to the boys, to submit it to 
my revision. But as I was in Raleigh, and there was some de- 
lay of mails, he did not receive it in a revised state till in the 
summer. "When I arrived here last fall, I collected the copies, 
and had them as I then supposed all altered in the respects you 
mentioned. This was done thoroughly, as I can show you when 
we meet, as I have with me, and had last winter, and offered 
to shew it Forbes, a corrected copy. But it seems Golett was 
absent on a visit to a Mr. Harden when I corrected the copies; 
as was also Gatlin, and one other boy. When they returned, 
through hurry and by no design, as Forbes has published, their 
copies were not corrected — and hence all this bluster. Still, I 
blame not you — as you and any presbyter have a right to make 
such like inquiries of me. But not as has been done by others 
—make charges before they know the truth. 


I feel bound, however, to say that while I allow no prayers 
to the Virgin Mary or to Saints — not because they are wrong 
in themselves, but because they are liable to abuse — I still do 
retain, in St. Basil's Litany, which I have authorized in our 
domestic devotions, such an expression as this, "May all those 
who have passed from the shadow of this world in faith, enjoy 
rest and peace till they are united with us in thine everlasting 
kingdom." I regard this as the doctrine of the Bible and 
Prayer Book, and necessary to the Communion of Saints. — 
"Prayers for the faithful departed" were retained in the Litur- 
gy of Edward, left out under the pressure of Puritanism, sanc- 
tioned by various bishops and doctors after being left out, and 
hence as they are found in all the earliest liturgies of the 
church, and authorized by Holy Scripture, 2 Tim. 1, 18, I do 
not hesitate to give them a place in our domestic use. 

Give my love to Julia, and believe me faithfully your friend 
and brother, 

(Signed,) L. S. IYES. 

P. S. I wish you to write to Drane and any one who has 
been misled by the fact of this manual being found with Goelett, 
and give them the circumstances above detailed. Passmore 
and French both regret the omission exceedingly: they desire 
in nothing to seem even to depart from the Prayer Book. 

Reply of Bev. Mr. McRae. 

"Wakeenton, Au't 6, '49. 
My Deak Bishop: I am pleased to find you have taken my 
letter so kindly, and so fully appreciate the feelings with which 
it was written. It encourages me to write again. You say had 
I or others acted before in this way there could have been no 
difficulty in Convention. And if by this is meant that I have 
not at all times acted with the most perfect candor and frank- 
ness in all matters touching the present unhappy agitation in 
the Diocese, great injustice is done me. I have from the very 
first spoken very freely to you of the great rejmgnance felt by 
every clergyman properly belonging to North Carolina, to any- 
thing that looks like a departure from the teaching of the Book 
of Common Prayer. I remember on several occasions warning 
you of the storm that has at length arisen. 

Your letter, however, gives me leave to enter more fully into 
these matters. 

And first, as to the manual found in the hands of young 
Goelet. You say it was prepared by Mr. French, "than whom 
the church has not a truer son." His position in the Diocese 
shows the estimation in which you hold him. But let me say 
others will think differently when they learn that a book of de- 
votion prepared by him for boys under his care was considered 
so objectionable by his bishop as to call for its suppression. — 
For the book when altered was no longer the tract compiled by 
Mr. French, and which as I learn from your letter was in the 
hands of the boys a twelvemonth for their daily devotional use. 
And it was then altered because you disapproved, and not be- 
cause Mr. French considered its teaching wrong. For all that 
appears, he holds such doctrines still. I think I may take this 
for granted, because you say in the latter part of your letter 
that you did not prohibit prayers to the Yirgin Mary or to 
Saints because they are wrong, but because they are liable to 

Now, my dear Bishop, I cannot conceal from you the distress 
your letter gives me. I cannot but regard it as a declaration 
of belief on your part which the Church positively condemns. 
Whereunto is all this to lead? If Mr. French or any Presbyter 
will make the same declaration, I will most unhesitatingly pre- 
sent him. 

Now, if such doctrines are held by Mr. French, and merely 
withheld from the boys from fears of abuse, is it not reasonable 
to infer they form a part of his teaching in cases in which he 
thinks abuses will not ensue? And can such doctrines be said 
to be in "accordance with the principles and usages of our branch 
of the Holy Catholic Church, as contained in the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer?" How can these things be called in any sense 
usages of the Protestant Episcopal Church? "Where is the office 
or expression designed to inculcate any such doctrine? And 
yet for a twelve-month Mr. French taught such things to the 
boys? How many left the school whose minds were never dis- 
abused? The Book was corrected, but what means were taken 
to correct the impressions made on the minds of the boys? 

My dear Bishop, I must frankly say, that those with whom 


I have conversed, (and I have conversed with several,) and who 
contributed to the founding of the establishment at Valle Cru- 
cis, little dreamed it was designed to become the nursery of 
such errors; and I feel bound to say for myself and others, that 
we consider it a sad perversion of what was given, and I for- 
mally call upon you as trustee of that fund to carry out the in- 
tent of the donors. It has already become a matter of com- 
plaint, and could your letter be known that the teaching put 
forth in the tract by Mr. French is not considered false but 
true, and merely liable to abuse, and on that account withheld; 
I repeat, if this were known, there is not, I believe, a contribu- 
tor to that fund in North Carolina who would not protest against 
its perversion. 

You say I have 'gone off half-cocked;' and if by this is meant 
that I fired at the very suspicion of errors, I plead guilty: but 
if you mean to say my suspicions were groundless, let me assure 
you they will not be so considered by the Clergy and Diocese 
at large. I cannot tell you how sad I felt to find myself sus- 
taining this new relation to you. But I must obey my con- 
science, as I hope for acceptance in that day. 

You once spoke of calling a special Convention. Pray do so. 
It would I think accord with the universal sentiment of the Dio- 
cese. And when called, pray announce distinctly what you do 
hold and sanction. For as it is, you subject yourself to the 
charge that "this thing is done in a corner." 

My intercourse with the Clergy and Laity of the Convention 
was very unreserved, and I was satisfied, had such declaration 
as your letter contains then been made, your resignation of the 
Diocese would have been requested that very day. 

The nature of your letter forbids me to regard it as a private 
communication, and unwilling to be the depository of what so 
vitally affects the Church in North Carolina, I shall without 
delay send our correspondence to the Standing Committee of 
the Diocese. 

Believe me, dear Bishop, 

Very truly and affectionately, 
(Signed,) ' C. F. McKAE. 

The three letters above submitted were sent to the Standin g 


Committee by the Rev. Mr. McRae on the 9th of August, 1849. 
The letter which follows was not sent to the Standing Commit- 
tee. It has been placed in the hands of this Committee by a 
person to whom it was sent by the Rev. Mr. McRae, to be used 
at that person's discretion. 

Yalle Crucis, Aug. 17, 1849. 
"It is an honor to a man to cease from strife." — Prov. 20, 3. 

My Dear McRae: I have your letter of the 6th inst., and 
feel bound before you suffer your excitement to do yourself or 
me any further injustice, to speak to you as your Bishop, whose 
godly judgment you have vowed to follow, and warn you a- 
gainst a terrible temptation to which I see you exposed. At 
this moment, I can truly say, I feel a deeper anxiety for your 
spiritual welfare than for any issue of the matter of your com- 
plaint as respects myself. The temptation to which I allude is 
a desire to be a leader, to appear to the Laity very solicitous 
for the purity of the faith — forgetting all this time that your 
Bishop has authority over you, and that he has a right to be 
considered not less knowing nor conscientious than yourself; 
and that he has been constituted by the Church in these United 
States the guardian of the truth in this Diocese. I doubt not 
your sincerity; but I clearly see that you are under a delusion; 
and that this is endangering your own salvation, as well as the 
peace and prosperity of this Diocese. I know there is an ex- 
citement, and that it has been gotten up with no fault of mine, 
either in teaching the faith, or in administering the faith en- 
trusted to me. 

1. In the first place, you speak to me in altogether an unbe- 
coming manner, as to the fulfilment of my trust at Yalle Cru- 
cis; — speak as if I was a defaulter to you and the Church. I 
cast back such insinuations as unworthy of you, and as utterly 
groundless in respect to myself. You demand of me to fulfil 
my trust: I demand of you to act towards me as a christian and 
a presbyter. So give me at least the consideration which is 
granted to the veriest criminal, to be viewed as innocent till 
proved guilty. I demand of you to be reasonable, and look at 
the facts of the case. 

In the year 1844, 1 was moved by no other consideration than 


a desire to rescue the ignorant and wretched from spiritual de- 
gradation, to purchase a farm for the purpose of establishing a 
religious house or missionary family (call it what you will) to 
keep up the daily worship of Almighty God in these moun- 
tains, and to extend permanently to the mountaineers the bless- 
ings of the Gospel in the Church. A classical school was en- 
grafted upon this establishment to aid the foundation. But by 
mismanagement it brought me greatly in debt. Previous to 
this, however, as documents will show, I had made over the 
property in trust (reserving a life estate to myself) for the pur- 
poses above specified. This I had done in the fear of God, and 
felt, when I found myself in debt, that I could not allow this 
property thus devoted to Him, to be sacrificed or directed to a 
secular use. I made up my mind to submit to any personal 
sacrifice to accomplish my purpose. This, I thought, with what 
I could obtain from friends, might relieve me. I made an ap- 
peal to the Church at ISTewbern, offering to put the whole estab- 
lishment under the Diocese. But the Diocese declined to have 
any responsibility. Friends, however, and yourself among the 
number, showed me the affectionate confidence to come forward 
and aid me to the amount of about $1500. Upon this I at once 
altered the deed, so as to preclude my life estate in the proper- 
ty, and only reserved to myself the management of the estab- 
lishment during my natural life, and after that to the Head of 
the Community of the Holy Cross established here, he being 
appointed with the sanction of the Bishop of JNorth Carolina, 
and conducting the mission "in agreement" (I cpiote literally 
from the deed,) "with the Book of Common Prayer, set forth 
by the Gen. Conv. of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States." This, I thought, as the whole responsibility 
was thrown upon me, and as I had contributed to the property, 
as my papers will show, more than $5000, I had a right to do. 
Particularly as I had hoped, if God should spare me (and this 
hope I expressed at the outset to Judge Cameron and other 
friends) to be able to retire and spend the last of my days in 
devotion and labors of love and mercy at Yalle Crucis. And 
now for what you are pleased to designate as a suspected "work 
in a corner." In the summer of 1847, after having had various 
persons at the head of the house, I resolved to get a permanent 


one. For this purpose I wrote to Bishop Doane and others to 
aid me, and was first directed to Mr. Passmore. But he had 
objections on the score of youth. I was then directed to Mr. 
French. "With great difficulty I persuaded him to accept the 
place. He came, however, with high recommendations for 
personal piety, energy, self-sacrifice and fidelity to the Church. 
And he has thus far honored his testimonials. About Christ- 
mas 184Y he prepared the little manual of devotions, to which 
objections have been made. It was a compilation from various 
books, and copied in the midst of a great press of duty. In 
two or three copies, I am told, (I have never seen one of them,) 
an address to the Virgin Mary was copied by mistake, (Mr. 
French holding with me such addresses to be not allowable.) 
When I went up in Sept. following I saw the manual and ob- 
jected at once to the invocation of the guardian angel (there 
being no invocation to a saint or the Virgin Mary,) and had it 
altered, and I supposed and so did Mr. French that this was 
done in all the copies, as I have told you already. And I no- 
tice again here to correct the mistake you have fallen into, in 
supposing that I alluded in my last letter to prayers to the Vir- 
gin, when I had never seen any such, although it is believed 
that two or three copies had them in. On learning from you 
the fact in regard to Golett's manual, I called for them again, 
and all manuscripts used in teaching or lecturing, and all text- 
books; and in no instance has a book been used that is not found 
in the list of the house of Bishops, nor a sentiment expressed, 
so far as I can learn, in opposition to our standards. Hence I 
say that I have not only been faithful to my kind friends who 
aided me, but to the Church and every body concerned, and 
have a clear conscience before God in the matter. I repeat it, 
there is no man or clergyman in this Diocese who has done 
more for two years past for the Church, according to her Prayer- 
Book, than this same much abused Mr. French. If you doubt, 
come and see for yourself. 

2. But as you have laid what you regard my heresy before 
my Standing Committee, you have cut yourself and the Diocese 
off from any friendly explanations from me. ISTo special Con- 
vention will be called with my consent, and no separation will 
take place between me and my Diocese, except as I may be 


disposed of by my peers, Bishops of the Church, to whom I am 
always ready to answer for my faith and manners. Threats 
avail nothing with me, and unauthorized and irresponsible de- 
mands, no matter from what quarter they may come, will re- 
ceive from me no attention. Peace and conciliation I have 
always sought, so far as my duty to God and His Church would 
allow, but when authority is invoked to force me to solve the 
gossip of the multitude, or to declare my faith to meet the sus- 
picions and false charges of those over whom I am made the 
authorized guide and teacher, I have done. The problem must 
be worked out by those who put it; I neither court the opera- 
tion nor fear the result. But with a good conscience before 
God, and a firm and unfaltering trust in His mercy and good- 
ness towards me, His most unworthy servant, I shall continue 
by His grace to discharge my duties as "a good steward of His 
manifold gifts." And praised be His name, I am not left com- 
fortless; but am receiving almost daily expressions of confidence 
from those whose judgment I most value. My brother of South 
Carolina, Dr. Gadsden, has come out in the June No. of the 
Messenger in a clear and decided and too flattering defence of 
my Pastoral on the Priestly Office. While the Churchman 
has given an unqualified recommendation of my seven sermons. 
My letters too are of the most cheering kind. But what is 
cheering above all, is the voice that speaks within my own 
breast — "If ye suffer with Christ, ye shall be glorified together;" 
assuring me at the same time that I am suffering with Him — 
suffering for my fidelity to Him and to the souls He has com- 
mitted to me. When sick and unable to act for myself, I very 
sinfully spoke of resignation. But that thought is dismissed 
forever. So that they who are determined to put me, an old 
man broken down in their service, aside, they must push for a 
presentment. And in these times they may get it, and obtain 
perhaps my degradation for heresy or anything else. But when 
death comes, though it may take me and my poor wife from 
the cabin of the pauper, I tell you with my eye fixed upon the 
judgment-seat, that I would not for worlds exchange the satis- 
faction I now feel from a consciousness of fidelity to my trust, 
if God will grant them to me at that solemn hour, for all the 
joys of my persecutors for having crushed their father in God 


for daring to interpret his duty for himself. I repeat, that by 
the help of God I shall proceed in my vocation, and not lift one 
finger to stay the fury which, without my fault, (as God is my 
witness,) others have raised, but which, must, whatever may 
become of me ultimately, fall by the guidance of the Almighty 
on their own heads. From my soul I pity them, and daily pray 
that God may spare them. 

And for you, my son, I pray and tremble as I pray, (for I 
love you as a son,) that God may give you the spirit of wisdom, 
and soberness, and of a sound mind in this the most critical, 
yea perilous (if justice and eternity be not fancies,) point in 
your existence. 

You have the blessing, and whatever you may give in return, 
you shall ever have the affectionate and earnest prayers of your 
true friend and father in Christ, 

(Signed,) L. SILLIMAN IYES. 

P. S. On looking over your letter again, I am constrained to 
warn you in reference to another point. Its tone of patronizing 
and offensive dictation makes me fear you may presume upon 
my beiDg a poor man. It is written, I know, that "the destruc- 
tion of the poor is their poverty." And it is written again, I 
know, "rich men oppress you and bring you before the judg- 
ment-seats." Still there are exceptions to both of these rules, 
and I would have you understand, that however tightly you 
may fasten the screws upon me, you will not find me guilty of 
Simony. Mrs. Ives and myself (thank God she stands by me,) 
made up our minds before we parted this summer, to submit to 
any hardship from want or persecution, after hearing of a threat 
that the Bishop would be brought to terms by starvation. "We 
both feel, after what we have already sacrificed for North Caro- 
lina, that "it is better to trust in the Lord than to put any con- 
fidence in man." 

Besides, you may do your best to excite the Laity against 
me, as you are doing, and you will find the result after all a sad 
disappointment to you. I have some means of knowing the 
temper of the Diocese as well as yourself. 

In addition, if you have any Church principle, read the 18th 
Canon of the Council of Chalcedon. 

P. S. I have received from the low country a united request 


from a large body of the Laity to come to them for sympathy, 
and I am going soon. 

Where is your boasted promise that your sermon should not 
be published without the Bishop's consent? 



This book may be kept out one month unless a recall 
notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North 
Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal. 

Form No. A-369